Application of Nano-Particles of Clay to ‎Improve Drilling Fluid

Document Type : Research Paper


Young Researchers and Elite Club, Omidieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Omidieh, Iran.‎


   Drilling fluids are an essential component of the rotary drilling process used to drill for oil and gas on land and offshore environments. The injection of this nano particle into drilling fluid increases the viscosity levels fluids. In these experiments, the rheological properties of the fluid including apparent viscosity (AV), plastic viscosity (PV), yielding point (YP), mud cake thickness and fluid loss (FL) were studied before and after the addition of the nanoclay with different concentrations. In this study, nano particles of clay were used in order to enhance the rheological properties of drilling fluids. The results showed nanoclay controls the fluid loss and is resistant to high temperatures and also fluid loss. We also found that nanoparticles varying in concentration (0.1 to 1 Wt %) and also size 1, 50 and 500 nm are shown to be effective at improving fluid rheology.


  1. Ozbayoglu, M.E, Saasen, A., Sorgun, M., Svanes, K., (2008). “Effect of Pipe Rotation on Hole Cleaning forWater-based Drilling Fluids in Horizontal and DeviatedWells”, IADC/SPE, 114965.
  2. Growcock, F.B., Frederick, T.P., Reece, A.R., Green, G.W., (1998). “Novel lubricants for water-based drilling fluids”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 50710.
  3. Foxenberg, W.E., Ali, S.A., Long, T.P., Vian, J., (2008). “Field experience shows that new lubricant reduces friction and improves formation compatibility and environmental impact”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 112483.
  4. Karen, J.K.M., Ponmani, S., Samuel, R., Nagarajan, R., Sangwai, J.S., (2014). “Effect of CuO and ZnO nanofluids in xanthan gum on thermal, electrical and high pressure rheology of water-based drilling fluids”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 117: 15–27.
  5. Cai, J., Chenevert, M.E., Sharma, M.M., Friedheim, J., (2012).  “Decreasing Water Invasion Into Atoka Shale Using Nonmodified Silica Nanoparticles”, SPE Drill & Compl., 27: 103–111.
  6. Chenevert, M.E. (1970). “Shale Control with Balanced-Activity Oil-Continuous Muds”, J. Pet. Technol. 22: 1309–1316.
  7. Sensoy, T., Chenevert, M.E., Sharma, M.M., (2009). “Minimizing water invasion in shale using nanoparticles”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 124429.
  8. Al-Bazali, T.M., Zhang, J., Chenevert, M.E., Sharma, M.M. (2005). “Measurement of the Sealing Capacity of Shale Caprocks”, Paper SPE 96100 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9–12 October.
  9. Cheraghian, G., (2016). “Application of nano-fumed silica in heavy oil recovery”, Petroleum Science and Technology, 34: 12-18.
  10. Amanullah, M. Al-Tahini, A.M. (2009). “Nano-Technology—Its Significance in Smart Fluid Development for Oil and Gas Field Application”, Paper SPE 126102 presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, 9–11 May. http://dx.doi. org/10.2118/126102-MS.
  11. Behari, J., (2010). “Principles of nanoscience: an overview”, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 48: 1008–1019.
  12. Schuth, F., Lu, A., Salabas, E.L., (2007). “Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application. Angew”, Chem. Int. Ed., 46: 1222–1244.
  13. Aghajari, E., Morady, S., Navid Famili, M.H., Zakiyan, S.E., Golbang, A., (2014), “Responses of Polystyrene/MWCNT Nanocomposites to Electromagnetic Waves and the Effect of Nanotubes Dispersion”, Iranian J. Sci. and Technol., 27: 193-201.
  14. Cheraghian, G., Tardasti, S. (2012). “Improved oil recovery by the efficiency of nano-particle in imbibition mechanism”, 74th EAGE Conference and Exhibition Incorporating EUROPEC 2012, June 4–7, Copenhagen, Denmark..
  15. Cheraghian, G., (2015). “Improvement of Thermal Stability of Polyacrylamide Solution Used as a Nano-fluid in Enhanced Oil Recovery process by Nanoclay”,  Int. J. of Nanoscience and Nanotech., 11: 201-208.
  16. Cheraghian, G., Hendraningrat, L., (2016). “A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding”, International Nano Letters., 6: 1-10.
  17. Cheraghian, G., Hendraningrat, L., (2016). “A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension”, International Nano Letters. 6: 129-138.
  18. Xie, H., Yu, W., Li, Y., Chen, L., (2011). “Discussion on the thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids”, Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6: 124.
  19. Abdo, J., Danish, M., (2012). “Nano-enhanced drilling fluids: pioneering approach to over- come uncompromising drilling problems”, J. Energy Res. Technol. ASME, 134: 501–506.
  20. Abdo, J., Hafeen, M.D., (2012). “Nano-enhanced drilling fluids: pioneering approach to overcome uncompromising drilling problems”, J. Energy Res. Technol., 134: 1–6.
  21. Amanullah, Mh., Ashraf, M.A., (2009). “Nano-technology—its significance in smart fluid development for oil and gas field application”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 126102
  22. Amani, M., Al- Jubouri, M., Shadravan, A., (2012). “Comparative study of using oilbased mud versus water based mud in HPHT fields”, Adv. Pet. Explor. Dev., 4: 18–27.
  23. Agarwal S., Tran P., Soong Y., Martello D. K. Gupta R., (2011), “Research Shows Benefits Of Adding Nanoclay, Nanosilica To Oil-Based HP/HT Drilling Fluids”,, American Oil and Gas Reporter.
  24. Paiaman, M.A., Al-Anazi, D.B., (2009). “Feasibility of decreasing pipe sticking”, NAFTA Sci. J. 60: 645–647.
  25. Zakaria, M.F., Husein, M., Hareland, G., (2012). “Novel nanoparticle-based drilling fluid with improved characteristics”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 156992.
  26. Cai, J., Chenevert, E.M., Sharma, M.M., Friedheim, J., (2011). “Decreasing water invasion into Atoka shale using non-modified silica nanoparticles”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 146979.
  27. Ji, L., Guo, Q., Friedheim, J., Zhang, R., Chenevert, M., Sharma, M., (2012). “Laboratory evaluation and analysis of physical shale inhibition of an innovative waterbased drilling fluid with nanoparticles for drilling unconventional shales”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 158895
  28. Sharma, M.M., Zhang, R., Chenevert, M.E., Ji, L., Guo, Q., Friedheim, J., (2012). “A new family of nanoparticle based drilling fluids”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 160045.
  29. Singh, S., Ahmed, R., (2010). “Vital role of nanopolymers in drilling and stimulation fluid applications”, Soc. Pet. Eng., 130413
  30. Das, S.K., Putra, N., Thiesen, P., Roetzel, W., (2003). “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids”, J. Heat Transfer, 125: 567–574.
  31. American petroleum institute, (2009), “Recommended Practice for Field Testing Water-based Drilling Fluid”, API-RP-13B-1, 4th ed. American Petroleum Institute, Dallas.
  32. Dardir, M. M., Abdou, M. I., (2013). “Ether-Based Muds Show Promise for Replacing Some Oil-Based Muds”, Petroleum Science and Technology, 31: 2335-2347.