Sol – Gel Spin Coated Cadmium Sulphide ‎Thin Films on Silicon (1 0 0) Substrates for ‎Optoelectronic Applications

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Physics, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001, ‎Tamilnadu, India.‎

2 Nanoscience Research Lab, Department of Physics, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar – ‎‎626001, Tamilnadu, India.‎


Cadmium chalcogenides with appropriate band gap energy have been attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. In this work CdS thin films were deposited on p – type silicon substrates by sol – gel spin coating method at different substrate temperatures. The CdS deposited wafers were characterized by Xray diffraction method (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infra – Red spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD analysis showed that the films have crystallites with classical hexagonal structure along (0 0 2) plane. The grain size was found to be in the range of 111.79 nm to 167.66 nm varying with the annealing temperature. The SEM micrograph of annealed CdS thin film showed uniform granular structures with very well defined grain boundaries all over the surface. The Raman spectra of the CdS films presented a well-resolved line at 300 cm−1 (1LO) and at 611 cm-1 (2LO). PL spectrum showed a broad peak centered around 2.19 eV (508.5 nm) which can be attributed to the defect/trap related transitions. FTIR analysis showed absorption bands corresponding to Cd and S. The electrical property revealed that the resistivity decreases when the samples were annealed.


  1. Hill, R. in: T.J. Coutts (Ed.)(1987).  “Thin Film Active and Passive Devices”, Academic Press, New York.
  2. Maryam Ranjbar, Mostafa Yousefi, Robabeh Nozari, Shabnam Sheshmani (2013). “Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium-Thio acetamide Nanocomposites Using a Facile Sonochemical Approach: A precursor for Producing CdS Nano particles via Thermal Decomposition”,Int. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 9(4): 203-212.
  3. Xiaoyan Yang, Bo Liu, Bing Li, Jingquan Zhang, Wei Li, Lili Wu, Lianghuan Feng, (2016). “Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited a novel CdS/CdSe composite window layer for CdTe thin film solar cell”, Appl. Surf.Sci., 367(30): 480-484.
  4. Wenzhi Chen, Xuan Huang, Qijin Cheng, Chao Chen, Daqin Yun, Fengyan Zhang,  (2016). “Simulation analysis of heterojunction ZnO/CdS/Cu (In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells using wxAMPS”, Optik- International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, 127 (1): 182-187.
  5. Escorcia-García, J., Becerra, D., Nair, M.T.S., Nair, P.K., (2014). “Heterojunction CdS/Sb2S3 solar cells using antimony sulfide thin films prepared by thermal evaporation”, Thin Solid Films, 569: 28-24.
  6. Khagendra, P., Bhandari, Paul J., Roland, Hasitha Mahabaduge., Haugen, Neale O., Grice, Corey R., SoheeJeong, Tieneke Dykstra, Jianbo Gao, Ellingson, Randy J., (2013). “Thin film solar cells based on the heterojunction of colloidal PbS quantum dots with CdS”, Solar Energy Mater. &Sol. Cells., 117: 476-482.
  7. Rathinamala, I., Pandiarajan, J., Jeyakumaran, N., Prithivikumaran, N., (2013). “Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique”, International Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, 4 (1): 35-42.
  8. Durand, S., (1977). “Conduction dans les couches minces polycristallines de Zn1-xCdxpreparées par pulverization cathodique reactive”, Thin Solid Films, 44: 43-56.
  9. Meshram, R.S., Suryavanshi, B.M., Thombre, R.M., (2012). “Structural and optical properties of CdS thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis”, Advances in Applied Science Research,3 (3): 1563-1571.  
  10. Curran, M.D., Stiegman, A.E., (1999). “Morphology and pore structure of silica xerogels made at low pH”, J. of Non-Cryst. Solids, 249: 62-68.
  11. Ziaul Raza Khan, Zulfequar, M., Mohd. Shahid Khan, (2010). “Optical and structural properties of thermally evaporated cadmium sulphide thin films on silicon (100) wafers”, Mater. Sci.& Eng., B 174: 145-149.
  12. Uplane, M.D., Paward, S.H., (1983). “Effect of substrate temperature on transport and optical properties of sprayed Cd1−xZnxS films”, Solid State commun, 46: 847-850.
  13. Ashour, A., (2003). “Physical Properties of Spray Pyrolysed CdS Thin Films”, Turk J, Phys., 27: 551-558.
  14. Santiago Tepantlan, C., (2008). “Structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis”, Revista Mexicana De Fisica, 54 (2): 112-117.
  15. Goswami, A., (2005) Thin Film Fundamentals, New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi.
  16. Salah Abdul-Jabbar Jassim, Abubaker A. Rashid Ali Zumaila, Gassan Abdella Ali Al Waly, (2013). “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films deposited by thermal evaporation”, Results in Physics, 3: 173-178.
  17. Olopade1, M.A., Awobode, A.M., Awe, O.E., Imalerio, T.I., (2013). “. Structural and optical characteristics of CdS sol gel spin –coated nanocrystallineCdS thin film”, IJRRAS, 15 (1): 120-124.
  18. Abdul wahab, S., Lahewil, Z., Al-Douri, Y., Hashima, U., Ahmedb, N.M., (2013). “Structural, Analysis and Optical Studies of Cadmium Sulfide Nanostructured”, Procedia Engineering,53: 217-224.
  19. Briggs, R.J., Ramdas, A.K., (1976). “Piezo spectroscopic study of the Raman spectrum of cadmium sulfide”, Phys. Rev. B., 13: 5518.
  20. Jerominek, H., Pigeon, M., Patela, S.,Jakubczk, Z., Delisle, C., Tremblay, R., (1988). “CdS microcrystallites‐doped thin‐film glass waveguides”, J. Appl. Phys., 63: 957-959.
  21. Senthil, K., Mangalaraj, D., Narayandass, S.K., (2001). “Structural and optical properties of CdS thin films”, Appl. Surf. Sci., 169–170: 476-479.
  22. Routkevitch, D., Bigioni, T., Moskovits, M., Xu, J.M., (1996). “Electrochemical fabrication of CdS nanowire arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide templates”, J.Phys.Chem.,100: 14037-14047.
  23. Eychmuller, E., Hasselbarth, A.,Katsikas, L., Weller, H., (1991). “Fluorescence mechanism of highly monodisperse Q-sized CdS colloids”, J. Lumin.,48–49: 745-749.
  24. Hasselbarth, A., Eychmuller, A., Weller, H., (1993). “Detection of shallow electron traps in quantum sized CdS by fluorescence quenching experiments”, Chem.Phys.Lett.,203: 271-276.
  25. Qutub, N., Sabir, S., (2012). “Quantum Dots Synthesized by A Simple Chemical Route”, Int. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 8 (2): 111-120.
  26. Martin, T.P., Helmut Schaber, (1982). “Matrix isolated II-VI molecules: Sulfides of Mg, Ca, Sr, Zn and Cd”, Spectrochem. Acta A, 38: 655-660.
  27. Jeyakumaran, N., Natarajan, B., Ramamurthy, S., Vasu, V., (2007). “Structural and optical properties of n- type porous silicon– effect of etching time”,Int. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 3 (1): 45-52
  28. Khomane, A.S., (2010). “Morphological and opto-electronic characterization of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide thin films”, journal of Alloys and Compounds, 496: 508-511.
  29. Mathew, S., Mukerjee, P.S., Vijayakumar, K.P., (1995). “Optical and surface properties of spray-pyrolysed CdS thin films”, Thin Solid Films, 254: 278-284.
  30. Su, B., Choy, K.L., (2000). “Microstructure and properties of the CdS thin films prepared by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition (ESAVD) method”, Thin Solid Films. 359: 160-164.
  31. Duchemin, S., Bougnot, J., El Ghzizal, A., Beighit, K. (1989). International Conference on Applications of Solar and Renewable Energy, 19-22.
  32. Ramadan, A.A., Gould, R.D., Ashour, A., (1992). “Dependence of resistivity and photoconductivity in evaporated cadmium sulphide thin films on deposition and annealing conditions”, Int.  J.Electronics., 73(4): 717-727.
  33. Panta, G.P., Subedi, D.P., (2012). “Electrical characterization of aluminum (Al) thin films measured by using four- point probe method”, Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 8 (II): 31-36.